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Data 2fimages 2ffkgu6l0s6eutvjpa7ywm 190226 s0 afzal sidra carbohydrates intro
Data 2fimages 2fgjtywldosfo6g3uekt2e 190226 s1 afzal sidra source and importance
Source and Importance
Data 2fimages 2fblzpytzcsgcy0fel1ltr 190226 s2 afzal sidra classification
Data 2fimages 2fonappn1xqlq42hpt9vbv 190226 s3 afzal sidra general properties
General Properties
Data 2fimages 2flmir4ce7qimi40uj5ewx 190226 s4 afzal sidra isomers
Data 2fimages 2f0zcoxgpzsmmykcjaldnc 190226 s5 afzal sidra mutarotation

Lecture´s Description

This medical video lecture aims to explain carbohydrates by giving information about its source and importance. Classification of carbohydrates into three types is discussed. Medical educator, Sidra Afzal also gives information about Van’t Hoff’s Rule of ‘n’, isomers, stereoisomers, and enantiomers. Lastly, light is shed on mutarotation.

Source and Importance

This section of the lecture elaborates source and importance of carbohydrates. Initially, carbohydrates are elaborated through definitionBiomedical Importance of carbohydrates is highlighted as it is a source of energy, precursors for organic compounds. Information about various foods is given which can be used as source of carbohydrates.


Carbohydrates are classified into three types i.e. monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide. Monosaccharides can be further classified on the basis of number of carbon. When two to ten monosaccharide molecules join via glycosidic bond, then oligosaccharides are synthesized. Polysaccharides contain more than 10 monosaccharide units.

General Properties

General Properties of carbohydrates are elucidated in this section. Primarily, asymmetric carbon atom is illustrated. Van’t Hoff’s Rule of ‘n’ is expansively discussed by Sidra Afzal. Subsequently, are conversed about in this section. Then discussion continues on anomers including open chain projection epimers formula, Fischer’s formula, Haworth’s formula.


Molecules which have the same molecular formula, but different structural formula are refereed as isomers. Sidra Afzal explains stereoisomers with the help of examples for the better understanding of students. Then she tells that penultimate carbon atom is the reference carbon atom for naming the mirror images. Moreover, D and L isomerism (Enantiomers) are also elaborated.


In this section of the lecture, light is shed on mutarotation. The term “mutarotation” originates from the observed change in the optical rotation of the alpha- and beta- anomers of glucose upon dissolution in water. This is described along with Fischer’s formula and Haworth formula.

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